Establishing the Internal Security and Infrastructure in Somalia
Since 1977 until present, the Somali people were in the middle of different kinds of wars and violent conflicts. As usual, violent conflicts originate from human insecurity such as exclusion, lack of access to resources and power. Poverty or lack of alternative economic opportunities, competition for natural resource, and tribal domination are also aspects that exacerbate conflicts in Somalia. On the other hand, lack of good governance, creates lack of respect for the rule of law, social exclusion, and intolerance. All the above factors can be identified as the fundamental causes of the various and prolonged conflicts in Somalia.
Somalia has all parameters that indentify the characteristics of a failed state. Its human insecurity emerged when social disorder arose within the former government’s systems and expanded to tears apart the government bureaucracy, institutional rules, and lastly it rip apart the normal cohesiveness of the Somali social structures, and their traditional livelihood systems, that survived many generations and preserved the uniqueness of the Somalis and their territory in the horn. The conflicts in Somalia created mistrust among communities, neighbours; and it built distrust between the affected Somalis and their governments, specially the latest before 1991. Due to the above-mentioned reasons, along with lack functional governments and administration in the last two decades, caused also Somali people’s exodus influx and migration inside and outside of the country. As a result, many of these immigrants died before they reached to their destination, and others are in interim refugee camps, waiting to get sponsors to go to the western countries. Many others are in overseas jails as they are illegal immigrants with no proper documents and visas to show. Their real figures and locations are mainly unknown. The most recent statistics of displaced Somalis cited UNHCR in a repost on January 2012 is as below:
Category Total number
Internally Displaced People in Somalia: 1,356,845.
Total population in Somalia who are at risk or of concern: 1,365, 183
No. of Refugees outside Somalia (who are seeking asylum) 1,099,806
Total Somali population at risk or of concern 2,464, 989.
Although Somalis claim that they are homogeneous people, who speak the same language, and practice the same religion, did not manage to resolve their differences; instead, they immersed themselves into deep devastating, and lethal conflicts, which divided the country in to opposing groups. Nevertheless, for the last 22 year, many Somali who migrated to the west exposed to live in multi-cultural, multi-ethnic and multi-religious countries such as Canada. This teaches us, despite of differences, people can live under the same flag once they have good governance systems, civil society mobilization, and available opportunities for the people to prosper.
Among the Somali presidential candidates of 2012, Dr. Abdurahman M. Abdullahi “Baadiyow” is number one candidate who can stabilize the Somali internal security and can put the pieces together to re-establish Somalia and assist the country to get back on its feet. Establishing the Internal Security of Somalia, embrace some of the barriers that failed all the previous government (from the last 30 years) failed to surpass. To break these barriers, it requires commitment, quality leadership, good governance tools, and public support in order to reach long lasting and healthy solutions. In addition, Somalia requires new vision, and strategies that could maintain government policies effectively implement. The government should immediately promote acceptable, decent moral/manners, cultural and religious sensitive mechanisms, to alleviate such awkward and evil conditions that the country is facing.
The future government of Somalia must focus on disabling all structures that fuel conflict. It must move beyond functions of maintaining and terminating ongoing military activities, such as ceasefire, demobilization and
disarmament. It should move to implement in sustaining and training of the existing army forces, recruiting new army forces, re-employment and retraining most of the former Somali army men and women, who are willing and able to contribute. In this process, every Somali citizen must be eligible to participate in the new army, once one did not commit crime against humanity, or against the country. Through the re-engagement, the old army can enrich the expertise of the new Somali army forces in general; it may help the government to build an effective and efficient Somali military, police and security forces that will safeguard Somalia and its people from internal and external threats.
The government should work on the elimination or reduction of the major factors that contribute to conflict and human insecurity in Somalia. The realization of these strategies will improve the peace and stability, it will prepare grounds to create conducive environment for future peaceful and transparent election, and will allow conducting a genuine election monitoring process.
Other important issues that future government should also tackle include providing voluntary settlement to the internally displaced people back to their original regions, and ensuring returnee security. Once the government succeeds to stabilize the internal human security of the country in general, therefore, individual security, and respect for basic human rights will concurrently secure. To resolve these issues are essential cornerstones of the political, economic, and social stabilization of Somalia. Other strategies that can sustain Somalia to recover and that may help the country to reach to its maximum inherent capacity for growth, both in human and economic development are as follows:
Strategies and programs to strengthen the internal security of Somalia should include:
It is necessary that the future government of Somalia should aim that the country reaches to self–sufficient in order to support itself, and only seek foreign assistance when necessary. Somalia has a lot of natural resource and can support itself when all Somali citizens assume a sense of responsibility with the vision and strategies of a great leader and a president like Dr. Abdurahman M. Abdullahi. Dr. Badiyow possesses all necessary education, skills, experience, and the qualities to fulfill his presidential duties successfully.
Amina Sharif Hassan